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FROM HISTORY OF REGISTRATIONS AND CENSUSES OF THE POPULATION OF THE WORLD

   The necessity to register the population appeared in the old days, being caused by the political, economic and military needs of ancient states that required the data about the number of the population able to pay taxes and be summoned for military service.

   Since ancient states came into existence in Ancient Egypt, China the Tigris and Euphratis basin (Mesopotamia, Babylonia, Assyria), India, Japan the first noted registrations of the population were conducted in these ancient state, and exactly, in Egypt (in approximately 2800-2250 BC ) and in China ( in 2238 BC )

    First registrations of the population were of primitive nature. Sometimes they were conducted in the form of recording and were often symbolic. Arianta, the Skiff King (Skifia was situated mostly on the territory of Modern Ukraine), willing to know the number of his citizens, ordered every Skiff to bring him a copper arrow-head under pain of death.

   Since the year of 435 BC registrations were held by the birthplace. In the Gospel according to Luke we find: In those days Caesar Augustus issued a decree that a census should be taken of the entire Roman world. This was the first census that took place while Quirinius was governor of Syria. And everyone went to his own town to register. So Joseph also went up from the town of Nazareth in Galilee to Judea, to Bethlehem the town of David, because he belonged to the house and line of David. He went there to register with Mary, who was pledged to be married to him and was expecting a child. (The New Testament, Luke,2)

   During the Middle Ages (the 5th-the middle of the 17th c.c.)minor and scattered states did not carry out the official systematic registrations of the population. Only in cases of emergency, such as epidemics, famine, war, attempts were made to count the survived people. Only after overcoming of the feudal lords and the formation of centralized states during the period of Middle Ages the registration of the population began and the formation of centralized states during the period of Middle Ages the registrations of the population began to take place, but they concerned only tax-payers and those subjected to recruitment; thats, the registrations were not general, even when they covered the whole country.

   Since the middle of the 18th c. such censuses took place in Austria, Bavaria, Holland, Denmark, Spain, Japan.

    In the centralized state Moskovia, formed during the reign of tzar Ivan Hroznyi, the traditional land registrations were carried out , for the purpose of taxation. In the 17th c. a dvir (a farmstead) became the unit of taxation. In 1718 tzar Peter I introduced the capitation census (in contrast to the farmstead one) registering only male population that was taxed and subjected to recruiting. The gentry, officials, etc were not registered. The first capitation lists, made in 1720-1721, were called skazki, the following censuses revizions and the lists- revisions tales.

   With the development of the capitalistic method of production all the regions of the state were united into one state economic complex where the workers (men, women and even children), deprived of the production means but personally independent of the capitalist, were made and had an opportunity to migrate all over the country in search for work. Under existing conditions the registration only of some categories of the population typical of the feudal and slave-owning regimes (tax-payers, men for recruiting, etc) lost its sense. The necessity of the general census of the population came into being.

    So, the emergence and the following development of general censuses of the population was stipulated by the always of great importance.

   The first general census of the population noted in the world was the census of 1790 in the United State of America.In 1800 Sweden and Finland conducted their first general censuses of the population, and in 1801-England, Denmark, Norway, France.

   The programs of the first general censuses were very limited. So, during the first census of the USA only the name of the master of the farmstead, the number of free people, white women and slaves were registered. The first census in France registered only sex and family status of the population. There were no distinct instruction as to carrying out of censuses and the period of their execution was very prolonged. The first American census lasted 18 months

    At the first historic stage of the development of censuses of the population (the end of the 18th- the first half of the 19th c.c.) the base of their organization was laid and the programs were defined. Alongside the necessity to compare the data of the censuses of different countries and unify general recommendations came to be understood.

    The solution of these problems was realized at the second historic stage of the development of censuses of the population. (the second half of the 19th the first half of the 20th c.c. ) Adolpf Ketle, the famous Belgian, was resolute in the solution of the problems. He formulated the principles of conducting general censuses of the population and they were discussed at the first meeting of the International Statistic congress in 1860 and at the eight meeting in 1872 the principles were integrated. It was the transition to the censuses of the population and the procedure of their organization do not remain unchanged, and depending on the demands of time they keep improving, though the main principles of their execution are still relevant.

    With drawing an increasing number of states to the system of international work division it turned to be necessary to conduct the world census of the population, which was the total of the censuses of separate states and territories of the world, that took place of approximately the same time and according to the single principle. The proposal to conduct the world census of the population in 1900, approved at the meeting of the International Statistics Institute in St. Petersburg in 1897, was not realized, as well as the proposal about the world census of 1940.

   The conduction of the world census of the population was enabled when United Nation Organization and its statistic system were created. With their formation the third historic stage of the development of censuses of the The programs of the first world censuses of the population of 1950 and 1960 were worked out by the statistic Committee of UNO together with the population committee and with the active participation of the statistic conferences. From then on by the beginning of every decade a special document has been issued, in contains the principles and recommendations as to the censuses of the population and houses, and also the models of the tables for the elaboration of census materials. The increasing number of states follow these recommendations nowadays. Most of states hold censuses once a decade during the years ending in o, 1 or 9

   In 1999 the new revised and improved edition of The principles and recommendations as to the conduction of census of the population and houses was published. It is devoted to the regular World census of the population of 2000.

FROM THE HISTORY OF REGISTRATIONS AND CENSUSES OF THE POPULATION IN UKRAINE

    In the 10th c. the dym (chimney) was the unit of registration of the taxed population and a form of the old-timed taxation in Kyiv Rus. It was calculated according to the number of stoves and chimneys at every farmstead. The dym was substituted by another unit of taxation- the ralo (a primitive kind of plough). Later the plush (plough) became the unit of taxation.

    In the time of the Mongol-Tatar Yoke the registration of the population was conducted on the demand of Tatar Khans in order to define the size of the tribute. Such registrations took place in1245, 1257, 1259, 1273. They were carried out by the registrars- specially appointed people.

   In the time of the Lithuania-Rus state the dvoryshche (yard) was the unit of taxation, and thus a unit of the registration of the tax- payers. It was not of permanent size and depended on the number of the unoccupied lands around. Later the number of unoccupied territories decreased, and the state demands, on the contrary, increased. That is why a new unit of the registration - voloka was introduced. According to The voloka regulations of His Worship Master in the whole Lithuanian principality. (1557) every farmstead obtained voloka, that equaled 19,5 dessiatinas (dessiatinas- measure of land that equals 2,7 acres).

    After the definitive assertion of the union of Lithuania and Poland by Liublin union in 1569, the greater part of the Ukrainian Lands was joined to Poland, and in the 1st half of the 17th c. almost all the lands populated by the Ukrainian people became the part of Rich Pospolyta (except Zakarpattia and the steppes to the east of modern Poltava region).(Rich Pospolyta- the Polish- Lithuanian state).

    In Rich Pospolyta the lustrations were carried out on order to obtain the information for the taxation. Those were periodic registrations of the state property aiming to determine their profitability, and also the registration mainly of the rural population that was taxed and bore other obligations.

    During the war of liberation of the Ukrainian people under the leadership of Bohdan Khmel'nyts'ky the registration of the people was conducted in the Ukrainian state for the first time. In Ukraine, just liberated from the Polish rule, the registration of the Cossacks by order of the hetman was conducted in 1649.

   After the division of Ukraine between Rich Pospolyta and Moscovia, that was finally asserted by the Andrusiv agreement in 1667, Right-Bank Ukraine remained under the Polish rule, Left-Bank Ukraine became the autonomous part of Moscovia.

    The first registration of the population in Left-Bank Ukraine after the division of Ukraine and before the Andrusiv agreement was conducted at the beginning of 1666 by the Moscow registrars invited to Ukraine together with the Moscow commanders and the army by the hetman of Left-Bank Ukraine Ivan Briukhovetsky. The registrars were carrying out the census of the population: the form of money, bread and other products. (D. Doroshenko, The essay of the history of Ukraine, p. 308)

    In 1729-1731 in Left-Bank Ukraine the census named The general investigation of the property was conducted by the regimental clerks in accordance with the new articles of the agreement about the autonomy of Left-Bank Ukraine, adopted in 1775. At the end of 1730 the regimental books were sent to Hlukhiv (the capital of Hetmanship), where they were definitively examined and at the beginning of 1731 one copy of The investigation concerning all ten regiments with the signatures of the general foremen and colonels, was sent to St Petersburg. (D. Doroshenko, The essay of the history of Ukraine, p.410, 412)

    After the abolition of one of the last attributes of the autonomy of Ukraine the hetmanship, with the aim of the introduction of the new raised taxation, The general census of Left-Bank Ukraine of 1765-1769 was rudely conducted by the representative of the Russian military teams. In every village the people, including even infants, were led out of their houses into the streets, formed up in ranks and kept waiting in any weather for the chief Agents to come down the streets and calling over, put a mark with chalk or coal on everyones chest in order not to be mixed with other people. The cattle were kept with their masters, examined and registered as the masters property. The bellow of the cattle and the howl of children notified the approaching of the Agents with the numerous assistants. (The history of Rusy, p.3170)

    The census was not finished because the war with Turkey broke out. Still a great amount of statistic data was obtained, but they were not used, a part of the information perished.

    In the 17th c. Moscovia and Rich Pospolyta shared Ukraine, in the 18th c. Russia, Prussia and Austria shared Rich Pospolyta. As a result of the first (1772), second (1793) and third (1795) divisions of Poland Russia annexed to its territory Right-Bank Ukraine, including Volyn lands were modern Volyn, Rivne and a small part of Ternopil (former Kremenets district) regions are partly situated nowadays. In 1812 Khotyn district, Akerman (Bilhorod-Dnistrovsky-since 1994) and Izmayil were joined to Russia.

    Austria annexed almost all Galician lands. Modern Ivano-Frankivsk, Lviv and Ternopil (except former Kremenets district) regions, Northern Bukovyna (except Khotyn district), and also Zakarpattia, captured by Austria and Hungary at the and of the 17th c, are situated mostly on the territories.

    So at the and of the 18th at the beginning of the 19th c.c. all from time immemorial Ukrainian lands were Shared by the two empires the Russian and the Austrian.

   In Left-Bank Ukraine the first capitation census of the population, introduced by the Russian tzar Peter I, was the fourth revision, that was being conducted during 1781-1787, because at the beginning of this period Left-Bank Ukraine lost its autonomy finally. In Right-Bank Ukraine the fifth capitation census (revision) was being conducted during 1794-1808, since its annexation to Russia took place in 1793-1795.

   The sixth revision was to have taken place on the territory of Ukraine, that was part of Russia. The census was appointed for 1811, but it was cancelled because of the war with France, the seventh revision took place in 1815-1825, the eighth-in 1833-1835, the ninth in 1850 and the last revision was conducted in 1857-1859.

   The first Russian general census was executed in 1897, it covered also the territory of two modern western regions- Volyn and Rivne, and former Kremenets and Khotyn district. Since the census was conducted in the middle of the second historic stage of the development of the censuses of the population, it, unlike the first general censuses conducted in the USA and in a number of European states at the beginning of the first historic stage of the development of the censuses, was a census in its modern sense.

    The first censuses of the population in Galicia were conducted after its joining the Austrian empire in 1772-1774. From then on they were carried out every 3-4 years. They also covered Zakarpatska Ukraine and Northern Bukovyna. The first general census of the population in the Austrian empire was conducted in 1818, but the program of this census, as well as of the following ten censuses, was limited and primitive, like most of the general census, conducted in other states at the first historic stage of the development of the censuses of the population.

    On 31 October 1857 the first general census, the program of which met the modern requirements, was conducted in the Austrian empire. After that five more general censuses of the population took place in Austria in 1869, 1880, 1900 and 1910. All these censuses covered the territory of modern Ivano-Frankivsk, Lviv (with the minor exception), Ternopil (except former Kremenets district) and Chernivtsi (except Khotyn district) regions.

    As to the people who populated the territory of modern Zakarpattia region at that time, their first censuses were conducted in the time of the undivided Austrian empire, the last five censuses took place in the time of the dual Austria-Hungarian empire, formed in 1867, and they are considered to be Hungarian censuses of the population.

   During the period between the two World Wars four Soviet censuses took place in the Ukrainian lands that were part of the USSR: in 1920, 1926, 1937, 1939. The results of the census of 1937 that shoved great losses of the people because of the man-made famine in Ukraine, collectivization and mass repression and execution, were hidden in secret rooms, and those who conducted the census and did their best to make it veritable, were executed.

   The people, population the territory of modern Ivano-Frankivs'k, L'viv, Ternopil, Volyn and Rivne regions, were embraced by the Polish censuses of the population of 1921 and 1931. On the territory of modern Chernivtsi region the Romanian census of the population took place in 1930. On the territory of modern Zakarpattia region the Czech-Slovak censuses of the population took place in 1921 and 1930 and the Hungarian census - in 1941.

    The reunification of Western Ukraine, Northern Bukovyna, Zakarpattia and Izmayil and Akerman districts with the Ukr SSR, that took place during the World War II, besides all the terrible events that followed it, is a positive historic phenomenon for the Ukrainian people, as in this way almost all from time immemorial Ukrainian lands were gathered together.

    After the World War II four Soviet censuses were conducted in Ukraine: in 1959, 1970, 1979, 1989.

    The data about the number of the censuses of the population in the Ukrainian lands, conducted in different times by the states that ruled them, with reference to modern regions of Ukraine, are represented in Table 1.

Table 1

THE NUMBER OF GENERAL CENSUSES OF THE POPULATION ON THE TERRITORY OF UKRAINE, CONDUCTED BY THE STATES UKRAINE WAS PART OF , IN DIFFERENT PERIODS OF TIME:

Modern regions of Ukraine Russian empire Austrian empire Hungary Poland Czech-Slovakia
Romania USSR
Autonomous Republic of Crimea 1 - - - - - 7*
Cherkasy region 1 - - - - - 8
Chernihiv region 1 - - - - - 8
Chernivtsi region - 17 - - - 1 4
Dnipropetrovs'k region 1 - - - - - 8
Donets'k region 1 - - - - - 8
Ivano-Frankivs'k region - 17 - 2 - - 4
former Izmayil and Akerman districts 1 - - - - 1 4
Kharkiv region 1 - - - - - 8
Kherson region 1 - - - - - 8
Khmel'nyts'kyi region 1 - - - - - 7*
former Khotyn district 1 - - - - 1 4
Kirovohrad region 1 - - - - - 8
Kyiv region 1 - - - - - 8
former Kremenets district 1 - - 2 - - 4
Luhans'k region 1 - - - - - 8
L'viv region - 17 - 2 - - 4
Mykolaiv region 1 - - - - - 8
Odesa region 1 - - - - - 8
Poltava region 1 - - - - - 8
Rivne region 1 - - 2 - - 4
Sumy region 1 - - - - - 8
Ternopil region - 17 - 2 - - 4
Vinnytsia region 1 - - - - - 7*
Volyn' region 1 - - 2 - - 4
Zakarpattia region - 12 6 - 2 - 4
Zhytomyr region 1 - - - - - 7*
Zaporizhzhia region 1 - - 2 - - 4

   *) The Soviet census of the population of 1920 in Ukraine did not cover the Crimea, former Volyn and Podillia regions and some other districts.













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